While ingredient labeling on food and non-alcoholic beverages is required by the Food and Drug Administration, labeling for alcoholic beverages is actually controlled by the Department of Treasury. Why? Well, after the end of prohibition, Congress recognized the tax potential of alcoholic beverages and assigned the role of regulating alcohol, including its labels, to the Treasury’s Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB).
Beer manufacturers might list a few ingredients on the label or post them on their website, but thanks to the TTB, disclosing the information is completely voluntary. And if the alcohol industries lobbying dollars are any indication, most big name brewers would much rather leave consumers in the dark about what is in their products. Typical beer ingredients include water, barley, yeast and hops, but some of the mass market brewers have started swapping these simple ingredients out for cheaper options or adding other strange ingredients which they claim will improve the quality.
Here are six ingredients that might surprise you!
1. High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS)
As a cheap alternative to sugar, food companies have been switching to HFCS for everything from soda to bread. So it is no surprise that beer manufacturers have followed suit. But HFCS is not the same as sugar. It contains a higher level of fructose, which goes straight to the liver to be metabolized. This disturbs glucose metabolism and can lead to metabolic disturbances that underlie the induction of fatty liver and insulin resistance (a hallmark of type 2 diabetes).
Where you’ll find it: Guinness
2. Fish Bladder
Attention vegans! Isinglass, a gelatin-like substance produced from the swim bladder of fish, is often used by companies to remove the haziness or yeast byproducts from beer. But you won’t find companies talking about it. Guinness, a known user of isinglass, only lists “malted barley, hops, yeast and water” as the “key ingredients” on their website.
Where you’ll find it: Murphy’s, Guinness, and other mass produced stouts
3. Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO’s)
Some companies claim that corn syrup gives their beer a milder or lighter flavor (is that a good thing?), but the fact is, corn syrup is just a cheaper starch. Further, in America, corn syrup is generally made from a mix of conventionally grown and biotech varieties, meaning GMO’s are pretty much a guarantee. GMO’s have not been tested long term on human beings, and pesticides sprayed on GMO’s have been linked with cancer and other diseases.
Where you’ll find it: Miller, Coors, Corona, Pabst Blue Ribbon, Fosters, and Red Stripe
The reason beer can get ‘skunked’ is due to a reaction between the hops in beer and sunlight. So how are companies able to use clear bottles? The answer is simple. They don’t use real hops. Thanks to the miracles of modern science, a synthetic chemical has been developed which mimics hop flavor, but is not impacted by the sun. The chemical known as Tetrahydro Isomerized Hop Extract (or Frankenhops as I’m calling it) cannot be found in nature. It also has no aroma, which is unfortunate for those that enjoy the floral fragrance that comes from real hops.
Where you’ll find it: Miller, Newcastle
5. Caramel Coloring
Toasted barley is usually what gives beer its golden or deep brown color, but beer manufacturers have taken notes from the soda companies and started adding caramel coloring instead. Caramel coloring is manufactured by heating ammonia and sulfites under high pressure, which creates carcinogenic compounds. In fact this coloring has been proven to lead to liver, lung and thyroid tumors in mice.
Where you’ll find it: Newcastle
6. Propelyne Glycol
Propylene glycol is an alcohol produced by the fermentation of yeast and carbohydrates. For beer, this ingredient is added to help stabilize the head of foam, but propylene glycol is also an active ingredient in engine coolants and anti-freeze. Sound toxic? It is. But, according to the FDA, propelyne glycol is only toxic to humans if consumed in very high doses, which would be nearly impossible to ingest through the amounts found in foods or beverages.
Where you’ll find it: Corona
Want to avoid these ingredients without giving up beer completely? Choose German beers. Ever since the German Purity Law of 1516, beers in Germany can only be legally produced using the core ingredients of water, hops, yeast, malted barley or wheat. German brewers aren’t even allowed to use sugar or other grains such as corn or rice. Smaller craft and micro- brewers are also a safer bet, though most come with a premium price. If you really want to know what is in your beer, try contacting the company directly. If they won’t tell you what is in it, it might just mean they have something to hide.